Areas of gymnosperms

The Gymnosperms belong to the type of flowering plants. They appeared on Earth before the Angiosperms and are considered less evolved having more primitive and rudimentary reproductive organs, even if they share the characteristic of reproduction through seeds. The gymnosperms are, in fact, plants with naked eggs and pollen naked, that means not enclosed in an ovary and anther.
The male flowers consist of scales that bear, on the lower wall, pollen sacs, in which the pollen matures.It consists of granules suitable to be transported by the wind, as they have two lateral swellings filled with air that work like swollen balloons.
The female inflorescences are made up of scales on the underside that produce two free eggs, "naked". Since there is no ovary, fruit does not form after fertilisation, only   the seed.To protect it, the female scales close tightly after receiving the   pollen, secreting a resinous substance.
The seeds take a long time to mature, and the female scales harden transforming into wood and becoming what is called a cone.
It will re-open only when the seed, mature and winged, will be ready for dissemination. There are four orders of Gymnosperms: Ginkgoali, Cycad, Gnetali Coniferali.
The Ginkgoali are woody plants, considered living fossils because they present a single species   with isolated characteristics compared to those of other plants currently living.
Pollination and fertilisation combined can take longer than a month.
The Cycad specimens are also considered living fossils. They are always dioecious, with anemophilous pollination , the number of genders and species is quite large.The stem is thick and short and from there arise the pinnate and of considerable size leaves, arranged in a rosette.
The Gnetali are gymnosperms with the characteristic of stomata stalks and male flowers provided with perianth. The pollination is performed by insects, their characteristics they are very similar to Angiosperms.